Research Showcase Abstracts

Explore abstracts from CFDR’s annual research showcase at the DC Conference.

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Names, Organizational Affiliations, and Locations of all Authors (2022 and Later)
D. Ghidanac1-3, M. Erlich1-3, Mejia. S. Blanco1,2, T.A. Khan1,2,
D. Jenkins1,2,4-6, E. Comelli1, C.W.C. Kendall1,2,7, J.L. Sievenpiper1,2,4-6;
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit,
Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto,
3 4
Ontario, Canada, College of Dietitians of Ontario, Ontario, Canada, Division of
Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of
Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s
Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
The Effect of Substituting Soy Milk for Cow’s Milk Consumption on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Cow’s milk alone and as a key feature of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern reduces blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. National dietary guidelines are shifting to advising a plant-based diet and plant-based milks are growing in popularity. Research is needed to determine if soy milk is a suitable substitute for cow’s milk for BP reduction in adults.
Objective(s)/Process or Summary of Content
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of soy milk in substitution for cow's milk consumption on systolic and diastolic BP.
Method(s)/Systemic Approach Used
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases (through April 2022). We included RCTs of >3 weeks that assessed the impact of soy milk vs. cow's milk on BP in adults. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A meta-analysis was performed using fixed effects models with data expressed as mean (MD) differences with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). GRADE assessed the certainty of evidence.
Out of the 1137 studies identified, 4 met eligibility criteria in 116 participants with hypertension (n=40) and without (n=76). Of the 76 without hypertension, 29 had diabetes. Doses of soy and cow’s milk were 240 mL per day, except for 1 study that provided 500 mL twice daily. Soy milk reduced SBP by – 8.77mmHg [–11.06, -6.48mmHg] and DBP by –6.11mmHg [–8.18, –4.04mmHg] compared to cow’s milk. Certainty of evidence was low for both SBP and DBP owing to downgrades for inconsistency and imprecision.
Substitution of soy milk for cow’s milk has a moderate decreasing effect on SBP and DBP in adults. Larger and higher-quality trials are needed to improve our estimates.
Significance to Dietetics
These findings suggest that the substitution of soy milk for cow’s milk may lead to a reduction in BP, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Funded by
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Government of Canada, Diabetes

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